Humanities and Social Sciences

Polish Psychological Bulletin

Content

Polish Psychological Bulletin | 2019 | vol. 50 | No 3 |

Abstract

The aim of the study was to examine identity statuses in various life domains and the relationship between identity and well-being. We adopted the three-dimensional model of identity (Crocetti et al., 2008), including: in-depth exploration, commitment, and reconsideration of commitment. Moreover, in accordance with domain-specific approach (Goossens, 2001), we sought to empirically derive identity statuses in various life domains. The participants included 835 emerging adults (Mage = 21.81, SD = 2.33). We examined eight domains previously identified in qualitative research: personality characteristics, past experiences, family, friends and acquaintances, worldview, hobbies and interests, aims and plans for the future, and occupation. To measure three identity processes, we used a modified version of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (Crocetti et al., 2008) and to measure well-being we used the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (Keyes, 2013). Results indicate that, although the statuses identified in previous research were, to a large extent, replicated (except moratorium), people were classified in different statuses in different domains; thus, we conclude that talking about statuses should be limited to a given domain. Well-being was the highest in achievement statuses and the lowest in diffusion, but only in two examined domains: personality characteristics and past experience.

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Abstract

Evaluation apprehension is the anxiety arising from a concern that one’s knowledge or expertise may be evaluated unfavorably by an audience. In this regard, the educational field comprising students’ discussions, lectures, presentations, and interactions is not an exception. Plethora of studies on student apprehension demonstrated that the construct is under the influence of different factors and can create various consequences. The aim of the present review is to complement and encapsulate previous research on student apprehension by providing an updated review on the concept in different disciplines. Data from 30 studies published in Elsevier, Springer, Taylor & Francis, and System were coded based on a coding scheme. The studies were broadly classified into four categories in the realm of education in terms of students’ disciplines; namely, Second/Foreign Language Learning (9 studies), Accounting and Finance (4 studies), Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy (6 studies), and miscellaneous disciplines (11 studies). The focus of this review pivoted around antecedents and consequences of student apprehension in each field. The analysis demonstrated the multidimensional nature of the construct caused by a host of variables and resulting in a multitude of ramifications. Based on these findings, some implications and strategies for mitigating student evaluation apprehension are presented.

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Abstract

Bullying at work is a long-standing area of research interest that requires investigation of the role of the individual exposed to systematic negative behaviour. Studies using cross-sectional samples and broad personality measures have found some distinguishing personal characteristics of employees who are bullied compared to others. Few, however have applied theoretical frameworks to explain why personality can play a part in why an individual ends up at the receiving end of bullying and harassment at work. This article applies an overall and specific theoretical model, the vulnerability thesis, to investigating the role of temperament in relation to workplace bullying. The results show that (1) some employees exposed to bullying at work also acted as perpetrators (provocative victims), that (2) exposure to bullying at work is connected with temperamental emotional vulnerability, and that (3) hostility and self-oriented aggression mediate the role of personality in the form of temperament in relation to workplace bullying. Strengths and weaknesses and potential practical implications for helpers of employees exposed to bullying at work are discussed.

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Abstract

Maternal mortality has posed a great problem in the health sector of most African countries. Nigeria’s maternal mortality ratio remains high despite efforts made to meet millennium development goal 5 (MDG5). This study used the Lagos state community health survey 2011 and the Lagos state health budget allocations 2011 to examine the effect of government expenditure on maternal mortality ratio. Factors like inadequate transportation facilities, lack of awareness, inadequate infrastructures, which contribute to high maternal mortality rate, can be traced back to revenue though under different ministries. The other ministries need to work and support the ministry of health in the fight against maternal, especially in Lagos state. Secondary data was compiled from the state budget, records of death in different local governments in the state and relevant reviewed literature. Regression analysis was used to analyze the hypothesis and it was discovered that government expenditure does not have a significant effect on maternal mortality based on the R-square coefficient. However, correlation coefficient gives a contrasting result. Hence, further research work, government expenditure from other local government areas need to be taken into consideration to arrive at a valid conclusion. It is difficult to ascertain how much of the revenue allocated was put to appropriate use, due to a high level of corruption.

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Abstract

The literature is undisputed regarding the impact of mental health on public health, and there has been an increase in the use of primary healthcare, in particular, the consultations of general practitioners (GPs), with issues at this level. In the literature on the subject, the psychological intervention has been indicated as a positive factor in reversing this trend, and it is in this context that the present study was developed. We intend to explore the differences in the number of GP consultations prior to and after the psychology consultation in a Primary Healthcare Centre (PHC). To this end, data from 845 healthcare center users were collected between June 2004 and September 2014. Student’s t-test and mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. The results point out a decrease in the number of GP consultations in the period subsequent to the first psychological consultation. We discuss that psychological intervention seems to have a positive effect, not only in improving the mental health of the population but also in the containment of costs in the health sector. The importance of the role of psychology in PHC was assumed.

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Abstract

This paper presents the results of a study on the Polish version of the Generic Conspiracist Beliefs Scale (GCBS), which was designed to measure individual differences in conspiracist thinking (Brotherton, French, & Pickering; 2013). The Polish version of the scale had excellent internal consistency as measured by Cronbach alpha: .93. The Polish version also had excellent test-retest stability. To check the validity of the questionnaire, various tools were used to measure the characteristics that can be correlated with conspiracist thinking. As a result, it was found that conspiracist thinking is positively correlated with the external locus of control, the results obtained in the Scale of Belief in Zero-Sum Game and the results of the MMPI-2 Paranoia scale. It was also found that patients with paranoid personality disorder and paranoid schizophrenia had higher results on the adapted scale than healthy subjects. In sum, the Polish version of GCBS had satisfactory psychometric properties, which makes it useful for measuring conspiracist thinking.

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Abstract

While personality is strongly related to experienced emotions, few studies examined the role of personality traits on affective forecasting. In the present study, we investigated the relationships between extraversion and neuroticism personality traits and affective predictions about academic performance. Participants were asked to predict their emotional reactions two months before they will get their results for one important exam. At the same time, personality was assessed with the Big Five Inventory. All the participants were contacted by a text message eight hours after that the results were available, and they were requested to rate their experienced affective state. Results show moderate negative correlations between neuroticism and both predicted and experienced feelings, and that extraversion exhibits a weak positive correlation with predicted feelings, but not with experienced feelings. Taken together, these findings confirm that extraversion and neuroticism shape emotional forecasts, and suggest that affective forecasting interventions based on personality could probably enhance their efficiencies.

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Abstract

Correctional staff is particularly exposed to occupational stress which in turn can have a negative impact on their job performance. This study attempted to analyse the role of personality, organizational factors, and stress coping strategies in shaping job satisfaction. 163 correctional staff members who were being trained at the Central Training Centre of Correctional Services in Kalisz, Poland, participated in the study. The following tools were used: The Bochum Inventory of Personal Work Features (BIP), the Multiphasic Inventory for Measuring Coping (COPE), and the Satisfaction with Job Scale (SSP).

Staff working directly with inmates scored the lowest in terms of job satisfaction. Social sensibility is a predictor of job satisfaction among each study subgroup and each correctional department and correctional staff as a whole. Correlates of job satisfaction among correctional officers were: Active coping with stressful situations and Seeking social support for emotional and instrumental reasons.

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Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief:
Dariusz Doliński, Committee for Psychological of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
 

Managing Editor:
Michal Grycz


Editorial Advisory Board:
Albert Bandura, USA
Jerzy Brzeziński, Poland
Daniel Cervone, USA
Janusz Czapiński, Poland
David Funder, USA
Gary Greenberg, USA
Hubert Hermans, Netherlands
Robert House, USA
Arthur Jago, USA
Krzysztof Kaniasty, USA
Ida Kurcz, Poland
Aleksandra Luszczynska, Poland
Tomasz Maruszewski, Poland
Jerzy Mączyński, Poland
Robert McCrae, USA
Stephen Motovidlo, USA
Dennis O’Keefee, United Kingdom
Zofia Ratajczak, Poland
Rolf Reber, Norway
Helena Sęk, Poland
Peter Smith, United Kingdom
Wilhelmina Wosinska, USA
Zbigniew Zaleski, Poland


Honorary Editorial Board:
Alois Angleitner, Germany
John Benjafield, Canada
Gian Caprara, Italy
Joseph Danks, USA
Anthony Greenwald, USA
Robert Hinde, United Kingdom
Friedhart Klix, Germany
Arie Kruglanski, USA
Richard Nisbett, USA
Guido Peeters, Belgium
Jane Allyn Pillliavin, USA
John Rijsman, Netherlands
Paul Slovic, USA
Wolfgang Stroebe, Germany
Velina Topalova, Bulgaria
Boris Velichovsky, Russia
John von Right, Finland

 
Language Editors:
Marlena Johnson, Poland

Contact

Polish Psychological Bulletin
SWPS Wrocław
ul. Ostrowskiego 30B
53-238 Wrocław
Tel: 71 7507214

e-mail: ppb@swps.edu.pl

Instructions for authors

Instrukcja dla autorów

Polish Psychological Bulletin is an official journal of Polish Academy of Science, Committee for Psychological Science. Each issue is devoted to a specific field or theme in psychology. Papers which do not fit the issue field are published in the Other Papers section.

Authors are encouraged to submit papers electronically via our Editorial System: http://www.editorialsystem.com/ppb

Your covering mail or letter should include full contact details. Authors are themselves responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyright material from other sources. Masked reviews are optional, and authors who wish masked reviews must specifically request them when they submit their manuscripts. For masked reviews, each copy of the manuscript must include a separate title page with authors’ names and affiliations, and these ought not to appear anywhere in the manuscript.

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Type: (a) title page, (b) abstract and up to six keywords, (c) text, (d) references, (e) footnotes, (f) figures, and (g) tables on separate pages in order. Abstract should be no more than 1200 characters and spaces (which is approximately 160 words).

Journal policy prohibits an author from submitting the same manuscript for consideration by another journal and does not allow publication of a manuscript that has been published in whole or in part by another journal. Authors must also verify compliance with APA ethical standards in the treatment of participants, human or animal.

Submitted manuscripts are subject to peer review and may be returned to authors for revision. Masked reviews are optional. Authors requesting a masked review should write it in the cover letter that they want a double-blind review, and they should remove all author names, institutions, and other identifying information from the manuscript.

Editorial Policy

Polish Psychological Bulletin is an official journal of Polish Academy of Science, Committee for Psychological Science. Each issue is devoted to a specific field or theme in psychology. Papers which do not fit the issue field are published in the Other Papers section.

Authors are themselves responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyright material from other sources. Submitted manuscripts are subject to peer review and may be returned to authors for revision. All papers are reviewed with respect to their scholarly merit. Masked reviews are optional, and authors who wish masked reviews must specifically request them when they submit their manuscripts. Only articles written in English will be considered. It is recommended that authors who are not native speakers have their papers checked by native-speaker colleague before submission.

Journal policy prohibits an author from submitting the same manuscript for consideration by another journal and does not allow publication of a manuscript that has been published in whole or in part by another journal. Authors must also verify compliance with APA ethical standards in the treatment of participants, human or animal.

The author agrees, upon acceptance of the article for publication, to transfer to Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee for Psychological Sciences the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article and its content. These rights are transferred for the duration of copyright as defined by international low. This enables us to ensure full copyright protection and to disseminate the article, and the journal, to the widest possible readership. Authors may of course, use the material elsewhere after publication providing that prior permission is obtained from Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee for Psychological Sciences.

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