The standard PN-EN_1993-1-5:_2008 (Eurocode 3) compared with the standard (PN-B-03200:_1990) used previously in Poland, introduces extended rules referring to the computations of the bearing capacity of the plated structural elements including the shear lag effect. The stress distribution in the width flanges is variable. Therefore in the case of the beam with the shear lag effect cannot be calculated by the classic beam theory. In this article a comparison of the results of the calculations of forces distribution, stresses and displacement according to the rule presented in PN-EN_1993 and results of the numerical computations for_3D model (using finite element method) is presented. The elastic shear lag effects, the elastic shear lag effects including effects of the plate buckling and the elastic-plastic shear lag effects including the local instabilities were analysed. The calculations were performed for beams with a small and a large span and an influence of stiffeners was analysed.
Several human studies have reported that capsaicin has anti-pruritic effects. Moreover, sever- al concentrations of topical capsaicin have been used to alleviate itch. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-pruritic effect of capsaicin against histamine-induced pruritus compared with that of topical steroid or vehicle in 15 healthy beagles. Fifteen dogs were divided into three groups (n = 5 each), and treated topically with one of the following on the left side of the neck: capsaicin, positive control (steroid), or negative control (vehicle). Each treatment was performed twice daily for 8 days. All dogs were injected with histamine intradermally before treatment and on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th days of the treatment to evoke itch. Pruritus, wheal, and erythema intensity were assessed at each evaluation; cutaneous temperature was also recorded. On the final day, skin biopsy was conducted for histopathological evaluation for all dogs. The severity of pruritus was lesser in the capsaicin-treated group compared with the negative control group on day 8 (p<0.05). In the capsaicin and steroid groups, wheal size, erythema index, and cutaneous temperature also decreased compared with pretreatment. Histopathological evaluation showed that the capsaicin-treated group had a higher number of inflammatory cells in the dermis com- pared to the vehicle control group; however, the steroid-treated group showed less severe inflam- matory reactions than the vehicle control group. These results suggest that capsaicin cannot reduce inflammation but may play a helpful role in reducing pruritus in dogs.
The paper presents an analysis of the influence of the energy generated from renewable sources on an improvement in the energy efficiency of public utility building and households. It also presents the current state of the technologies for the production of electricity from renewable sources, as well as their share in the national power supply system. The conducted analysis concerns both micro, as well as large systems generating electricity. Systems generating power from renewable sources are gaining in popularity. With an increasing awareness in the society of the beneficial influence that renewable power generating systems have on the environment, as well as the support in form of various programs offering subsidies for the construction of new systems, power generation from renewable sources is becoming increasingly popular and common. Although the renewable energy systems are still not widely considered to be a profitable solution, systems using renewable sources of energy are positively perceived and treated as a new trend in the construction of multi or single-family residential buildings. The increasing share of the renewable energy in the national power supply system significantly reduces the demand for energy produced from conventional sources. This obviously translates into a reduced consumption of primary energy, for example, fossil fuels, and, in turn, leads to the reduced exploitation of natural resources, thus contributing to the protection of the natural environment. A reduced consumption of fossil fuels also means a significant reduction in environmental pollution during their processing into electricity or heat. Actions aiming at improving energy efficiency and reducing final energy consumption are being undertaken by many countries all over the world, and by the European Union. In 2012, the European Parliament and the Council issued Directive 2012/27/EU obliging the Member States to initiate actions aiming at a reduction in the consumption of final energy by 1.5% a year. The paper presents the current status of generation of energy from renewable sources during the last 13 years. The ways for using energy from the renewable sources to improve the energy efficiency of facilities were also discussed.
Empathy and psychopathy seem to be two distant extremes, which only differ, with nothing similar. Therefore, the question that seems to be surprising is whether such a theoretical perspective is justified. Empathy exerts significant influence on social relationships and is associated with moral development, whereas psychopathy seems to be an opposite phenomenon, as it is associated with the lack of deep interpersonal bonds and the violation of legal norms. As studies from various disciplines and scientific areas indicate, such concepts as behavioral effectiveness, morality or altruism might help explain the complex nature of the interrelationship between psychopathy and empathy. The authors tried to explore and describe the complexity of the two presented concepts in the light of the conducted research, and the resulting theoretical and empirical implications.
Research suggests that placebo can reduce the misinformation effect. We aimed to examine for the first time whether placebo administered in the guise of caffeine can reduce the misinformation effect. One hundred and twenty -three healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to four groups in a 2 Placebo (Present, Not Present) × 2 Narrative (Misleading, Correct) study design. Participants from placebo groups drank 100 ml of placebo solution. They were told that it was water mixed with caffeine which could positively influence their memory. After three minutes, they watched a short movie clip as an original event and read a narrative with misleading details or correct details as a postevent information; they then completed a 22 -item, two -alternative forced -choice questionnaire. The results reveal that the misinformation effect occurred. Although participants in the placebo with misinformation group scored better than participants who did not drink placebo and read the narrative containing misleading details, the difference was not statistically significant. Thus, it is concluded that placebo might not be enough to reduce the misinformation effect when it is administered in the guise of caffeine.
The article presents the results of the investigations performed on high manganese austenitic steel which underwent the test of uniaxial tension, with the application of electric current impulses. The application of low voltage impulse alternating current of high intensity during the plastic deformation of the examined steel caused the occurrence of the electroplastic effect, which changed the shape of the stress-strain curve. A drop of flow stress and elongation of the tested material was observed in the case of the application of electric current impulses, in respect of the material stretched without such impulses and stretched at an elevated temperature. The analysis of the morphology of the fractures showed differences between the samples tested under the particular conditions. An analysis of the alloy’s microstructure was also performed under different conditions. The application of electric current impulses can have a significant influence on the reduction of the forces in the plastic forming processes for this type of steel.
Paper presents methodology of generation of the uniform, compressive or tensile stresses in ring-shaped amorphous alloys core. In this study we use the set of special nonmagnetic, cylindrical backings. These backings enabled the core to be wound as well as create the possibility of generation of uniform compressive and tensile stresses. Using presented methodology the magnetoelastic characteristics were experimentally determined for Fe40Ni38Mo4B18 Metglas 2826 MB amorphous alloy. Knowledge about these properties is important for users of inductive components with amorphous alloys cores due to the fact, that changes of flux density due to magnetoelastic effect exceed 40%.
The protection of Polish architectural heritage in the former eastern borderlands, accomplished through the conservation and technical securing of historical structures, constitutes one of the main programmes that are implemented by the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage. Currently, many Polish historical buildings in the former eastern borderlands are in a very bad technical condition. The load-bearing systems of these elements, as well as elements of their finish, require immediate emergency securing work. The basic steps that precede conservation work are emergency structural works, which guarantee the durability and stability of the entire historical substance. The specifics and complexity of the problem of the failure of historical buildings often demands an in-depth analysis of a series of factors that are difficult to measure and which are responsible for the cause and effect relationship during the early stage of the technical evaluation of a structure. The analyses of failures of numerous historical structures, for instance that were carried out by the authors, have become the inspiration for the search for effective methods of analysis that would allow for an in-depth analysis of the causes and effects of the failures in question. The DEMATEL method (Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory) that has been presented in this work, and its fuzzy extension, has lately become one of the more popular methods used in the cause-and-effect analysis of various phenomena. The authors demonstrated how this method works on the example of the evaluation and securing of the load-bearing system of the XVII Collegiate church of the Holy Trinity in the town of Olykha in the Volhynskiy Oblast, Ukraine.
The paper presents an analysis of the sustainable development of electricity generation sources in the National Power System (NPS). The criteria to be met by sustainable power systems were determined. The paper delineates the power balance of centrally dispatched power generation units (CDPGU), which is required for the secure work of the NPS until 2035. 19 prospective electricity generation technologies were defined. They were divided into the following three groups: system power plants, large and medium combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as well as small power plants and CHP plants (distributed sources). The quantities to characterize the energy effectiveness and CO2 emission of the energy generation technologies analyzed were determined. The unit electricity generation costs, discounted for 2018, including the costs of CO2 emission allowance, were determined for the particular technologies. The roadmap of the sustainable development of the generation sources in the NPS between 2020 and 2035 was proposed. The results of the calculations and analyses were presented in tables and figure
In this paper we discuss some physical limits for scaling of transistors and conducting paths inside of semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs). Since 40 years only a semiconductor technology, mostly the CMOS and the TTL technologies, are used for fabrication of integrated circuits on an industrial scale. Miniaturization of electronic devices in integrated circuits has technological limits and physical limits as well. In 2010 best parameters of commercial ICs shown the Intel Core i5-670 processor manufactured in the technology of 32 nm. Its clock frequency in turbo mode is 3.73 GHz. A forecast of the development of the semiconductor industry (ITRS 2011) predicts that sizes of electronic devices in ICs circuits will be smaller than 10 nm in the next 10 years. At least 5 physical effects should be taken into account if we discuss limits of scaling of integrated circuits.
In the current study, twenty lambs, aged 4 months, half male and half female, were classified into four groups, with five in each group. The experimental three groups of lambs were given intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) administrations of recombinant ovine interferon-τ (roIFN-τ). The fourth group (normal control) of lambs was given normal saline injections in the same way. After administrations, blood samples were collected from the tested animals at different time points post injection, and the serum titers of roIFN-τ were measured using cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition bioassay. The results of calculating pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters using DAS software showed that the PK characteristics of roIFN-τ through IV injection conformed to the two-compartment open model, whose half-life of distribution phases (T1/2α) was 0.33±0.034 h and the elimination half-life(T1/2β) was 5.01±0.24 h. However, the PK features of IM injection and SC injection of roIFN-τ conformed to the one compartment open model, whose Tmax were 3.11±0.26 h and 4.83±0.43 h, respectively, together with an elimination half life(T1/2β) of 9.11±0.76 h and 7. 43±0.58 h, and an absorption half-life (T1/2k(a)) of 1.13±0.31 h and 1.85±0.40 h, respectively. The bioavailability of roIFN-τ after IM administration reaches 73.57%, which is greater than that of SC administration (53.43%). These results indicate that the drug administration effect can be preferably obtained following a single dose IM administration of the roIFN-τ aqueous preparation. This study will facilitate the clinical application of roIFN-τ as a potential antiviral agent in future work.
The aim of the article is to examine the specific properties of language actions in terms of their moral evaluation. The author starts from the question whether responsibility for words has the same meaning as responsibility for a physical action. In her analysis, the author deliberates whether in both cases the same rules and criteria are applicable. Referring to the classical theory of speech acts proposed by John L. Austin, who introduced a fundamental division into constative and performative utterances and went on to distinguish illocutionary effects from perlocutionary consequences of speech acts, the author investigates how far a subject is responsible for the words he uses.
The instability characteristics of a dielectric fluid layer heated from below under the influence of a uniform vertical alternating current (AC) electric field is analyzed for different types of electric potential (constant electric potential/ electric current), velocity (rigid/free) and temperature boundary conditions (constant temperature/heat flux or a mixed condition at the upper boundary). The resulting eigenvalue problem is solved numerically using the shooting method for various boundary conditions and the solution is also found in a simple closed form when the perturbation heat flux is zero at the boundaries. The possibility of a more precise control of electrothermal convection (ETC) through various boundary conditions is emphasized. The effect of increasing AC electric Rayleigh number is to hasten while that of Biot number is to delay the onset of ETC. The system is more stable for rigid-rigid boundaries when compared to rigid-free and least stable for free-free boundaries. The change of electric potential boundary condition at the upper boundary from constant electric potential to constant electric current is found to instill more stability on the system. Besides, increase in the AC electric Rayleigh number and the Biot number is to reduce the size of convection cells.
Over the past few years, a great deal of research has been conducted concerning the mathematical skills of children after the first stage of education. In my report, I present a selection of results from this research in order to illustrate the most typical didactical effects of the style in which mathematical education is performed in our schools. Comparing some detailed results from research in a number of chosen fields, I also try to assess whether or not, and how, the level of schoolchildren’s skills has changed in the recent years.
The category of expectation constitutes an important element of reflection in many scientific disciplines focusing on man. it is treated in both the categories of expectations inscribed in large social projects (e.g. of utopian nature) and individual expectations which build human daily routine. The article is divided into two parts. in the first, the issues of interpersonal expectations, analysed in the perspective of social psychology and sociology, will be undertaken. what will be explored here are the problems of defining the notion of expectation and the problems of expectations at school, which will be exemplified by the pygmalion effect. The first part is completed with some considerations on the meaning of expectation in sociology, the role of expectations in interaction, and the relations between expecting and social order. In the second part, the author focuses on the issues of expectations inscribed in utopian projects (“great expectations”). pedagogical utopias and relations between utopias and popularization of normative (formal) or informal pedagogies are subjected to analysis. The author makes here some references to the concept of post-materialistic society, attempting to elicit relations between this type of society and popularization of nonformal pedagogies.
This paper describes the weather conditions on the NE coast of Sørkappland (South Spitsbergen) during August 2005, and considers them in the context of the general synoptic situation over the North Atlantic . A comparison of local climates features for the East and West coast of southern Spitsbergen shows that the general atmospheric circulation and direct solar radiation in summer are the decisive factors affecting weather on the East coast. Foehn effects were observed during the study period. In the East, these were triggered by the westerly cyclonic situation and, in the West, by the easterly. The differences in the intensity of foehn effects may be explained by a specific relief of the Sørkappland peninsula.
The aim of this article is to defi ning problems occurring in the spatial management system, including those independent of subsequent legislative changes. The process of adopting decisions to be viable and socially equitable and execute the requirements of spatial order and sunstainable development requires fundamental changes. The study draws a conclusion – important in the context of subsequent research activities – that the varied application of development decisions in diff erent municipalities is also the result of not preparing a large part of the representatives of municipalities for specifi c spatial activities.
Clusters belong to the regional innovation system, which led to the formulation and implementation of the cluster-based policy in many countries. The positive impact of clusters on the competitiveness of regions was confirmed by empirical studies. Absence of clusters means retardation in a regional development. The implementation of cluster policy supporting coopetition into the scope of principled regional policy assumptions seems urgent. In this way effective conditions for the formation of growth poles around industries specific for a given region will be developed and, consequently, the economic specialization of individual regions will be achieved. Observation of the benefits resulting from the functioning of clusters in the region, taking into account their possible negative impact, will allow to determine the specificity of regional development policy based on clusters. These problems indicated above are the subject of this study, based on the Polish and foreign literature available on the subject employing the desk research method.
Internalization of external economic effects on urban sprawl affected areas. An example of the Krakow Metropolitan Area, The study is a discussion on economic externalities, with particular emphasis on technological effects. Attention is also paid to the problem of internalization of economic external effects caused by movement (transport) in areas affected by the urban sprawl process. The research was conducted for all communes of the Krakow Metropolitan Area (KOM), as a result of which the value of: directly incurred financial losses and the value of lost time generated by the necessity of commuting and return in the space of KOM were presented.
This paper deals with the modelling of traction linear induction motors (LIMs) for public transportation. The magnetic end effect inherent to these motors causes an asymmetry of their phase impedances. Thus, if the LIM is supplied from the three-phase symmetrical voltage, its phase currents become asymmetric. This effect must be taken into consideration when simulating the LIMs’ performance. Otherwise, when the motor phase currents are assumed to be symmetric in the simulation, the simulation results are in error. This paper investigates the LIM performance, considering the end-effect induced asymmetry of the phase currents, and presents a comparative study of the LIM performance characteristics in both the voltage and the current mode.
The purpose of this paper is to focus on the loss separation of non-grain-oriented electrical steels used for speed-variable rotating electrical machines. The impact of laser-cutting, used in prototype manufacturing and of flux density harmonics, occurring locally in the lamination, on the loss distribution is studied in detail. Iron losses occurring under operation can physically be separated in different loss components. In this paper, a frequency-based loss model with parameters identified for single-sheet tester specimens, cut in strips of different widths, is therefore used. Moreover, a time-domain approach considers loss distributions occurring from higher harmonics. Hysteresis losses having high sensitivity to cut edge effects are calculated by the well-known Jiles-Atherton model adapting the frequency-based loss parameters. The model is validated by free-curve measurements at a single-sheet tester. It has been shown that the studied elliptical hysteresis model becomes inaccurate particularly for specimens with small strip widths with similar dimensions as teeth of electrical machine laminations. The incorrect mapping of losses occurring from minor hysteresis loops due to higher harmonics is concluded. The results showconsequently that both, the impact of a cut edge effect and local distributions of flux density harmonics need to be considered in terms of accurate iron loss prediction of electrical machine design.
The study presents the results of laboratory testing of the phenomenon of cracking in the process of cross rolling. A new method of determining the critical value of the damage function was developed, in which a disc-shaped sample is subjected to rotational compression in a channel. In this method the Mannesmann effect was used. The laboratory tests were conducted for C45, 50HS and R260 grade steel in the temperature range 950°C-1150°C. In order to research various methods of simulating the phenomenon of cracking in the process of cross rolling, physical modelling was also employed. The model material was commercial plasticine, cooled to the temperature 0°C-20°C. Comparing the test results for both the real and model material allowed one to determine the range of the forming temperature for the model material, in which the cracking process is similar to the case of the real material.
The paper concerns the problem of treatment of the systematic effect as a part of the coverage interval associated with the measurement result. In this case the known systematic effect is not corrected for but instead is treated as an uncertainty component. This effect is characterized by two components: systematic and random. The systematic component is estimated by the bias and the random component is estimated by the uncertainty associated with the bias. Taking into consideration these two components, a random variable can be created with zero expectation and standard deviation calculated by randomizing the systematic effect. The method of randomization of the systematic effect is based on a flatten-Gaussian distribution. The standard uncertainty, being the basic parameter of the systematic effect, may be calculated with a simple mathematical formula. The presented evaluation of uncertainty is more rational than those with the use of other methods. It is useful in practical metrological applications.
This paper proposes a self-excited induction generator model with saturation effect for power generating mode in a remote site. The model is led through the space vector mathematical formalism and allows one to analyze the steady and dynamic states. It is developed for a squirrel cage induction machine. This model provides magnetizing inductance variation able to influence the build-up and the stabilization of voltage generation when the load changes. The final result is a realistic approach model which takes into con- sideration the dependency of the magnetizing inductance versus magnetizing current. This novel model is validated through experimental measurements to demonstrate its validity and practicability.
The aim of this paper is to derive an analytical equations for the temperature dependent optimum winding size of inductors conducting high frequency ac sinusoidal currents. Derived analytical equations are useful designing tool for research and development engineers because windings made of foil, square-wire, and solid-round-wire windings are considered. Temperature dependent Dowell’s equation for the ac-to-dc winding resistance ratio is given and approximated. Thermally dependent analytical equations for the optimum foil thickness, as well as valley thickness and diameter of the square-wire and solid-round-wire windings are derived from approximated thermally dependent ac-to-dc winding resistance ratios. Minimum winding ac resistance of the foil winding and local minimum of the winding ac resistance of the solid-round-wire winding are verified with Maxwell 3D Finite Element Method simulations.